Arthrosis - in any joint where it is located - is a degenerative-dystrophic change in the cartilage tissue of the joint. The term "arthritis" itself means that the pathology of the disease is not inflammatory in nature. Often in diagnoses they write "gonarthrosis".
The prefix "gon-" indicates the location of the lesion - this term means knee in the Greek translation. In some cases, the term "osteoarthritis" is used - this name is more familiar to English and American doctors.
Goonarthrosis most often develops in women over 40 years of age. Factors that increase the probability of onset of the disease are obesity and hormonal extinction. The disease can develop as unilateral and bilateral.
The disease can develop up to 40 years of age. In young people, deforming arthrosis of the knee is most often caused by injuries.
In gonarthrosis, the cartilage is first covered by microcracks, then it becomes thinner and stratified. When bending the knee, pain appears, which gradually increases. If, with gonarthrosis of the knee joint, you do not start treatment at the first signs, you may limp and then completely lose the ability to move.
Knee gonarthrosis - symptoms
Symptoms of the disease depend on the extent of the lesion. But there is also a common symptom - pain.
It grows gradually.
Grade 1 is characterized by mild painful sensations that occur when load on the knee joint is increased. A minor effusion may appear - the accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity. At rest, the pain goes away, there are no external changes in the knee, sometimes edema forms, which also disappears on its own.
In second-degree gonarthrosis, pain does not appear only after exertion. At rest, discomfort may occur after changing the position of the lower limb. Now the knee joint needs a long rest. The knee periodically swells, and when bent, a snap can occur. Bending and unfolding the leg becomes problematic. If synovitis or bursitis develops in the context of arthrosis—the accumulation of synovial fluid in the joint cavity or bursa (bursa)—the knee swells and becomes hyperemic.
Radiography shows significant damage to cartilage tissue, joint space narrowing, initial bone deformation.
With 3 degrees of gonarthrosis, the severity of symptoms increases. The leg is already bent with difficulty, the maximum bend is 130-1400. . . Joint deformity is already expressed externally. The pain does not decrease during rest, it becomes almost constant. It's impossible to sleep without painkillers.
The radiograph shows a narrow joint space, deformed joint bones, numerous osteophytes (spikes that appear due to salt deposits) in the joint cavity.
Lack of treatment for arthrosis of the knee joint significantly worsens quality of life - the ability to maintain upright posture is lost.
Causes of gonarthrosis of the knee joint
The disease can be triggered by the following reasons.
- Injuries: dislocations, fractures, muscle sprains and ligament tears in the joint area, meniscal injury.
- Illiterate treatment of injuries - prolonged immobilization or lack of medication to restore the blood supply in the therapeutic regimen causes a violation of joint trophism.
- Increased stress during sports or professional activities.
- Obesity. The most rapid development of osteoarthritis appears when obesity is combined with varicose veins - a violation of soft tissue trophism + a steady increase in load.
- Violation of the structure of the ligament apparatus, its injuries.
- Inflammatory processes in the body of various etiologies that have caused the development of arthritis. In the context of arthritis - an inflammatory process - arthrosis develops in the future.
- Disturbance of the body's metabolic processes, which does not allow the absorption of useful substances in the necessary volume.
- Inadequate nutrition - including diets - insufficient nutrients from food.
- Hormonal changes.
- Emotional instability and stressors.
- Bad habits - smoking, drug and alcohol use.
- Intoxication of the body.
The last 2 points cause relapses of arthrosis, as they worsen the general state of the body.
Knee gonarthrosis - treatment
Diagnosis of the disease consists of several stages:
- anamnesis collection;
- visual inspection;
- laboratory tests - general and specific blood and urine tests;
- hardware and diagnostic tests - X-ray (mandatory), CT scan, MRI.
An ultrasound may be needed to assess the condition of the vessels.
Usually, osteoarthritis of the knee is treated at home - referral to a hospital in most cases is necessary for patients who are recommended for surgery - excision of the damaged joint capsule and endoprosthesis. If the disease starts to be treated in stages 1-2, it can be brought to a state of remission by conservative methods.
The following therapeutic measures and medications are prescribed:
- Immobilization of the affected limb during the exacerbation.
- Eliminating pain with drugs from various groups:
- pain relievers, including those containing narcotic ingredients - are used once for intolerable pain;
- anesthetics in the form of injections.
- The most commonly prescribed non-steroidal medications. They are made in various forms - like cream, ointment, suppositories, injections, solutions; you can use them however you like.
- Corticosteroids are used - they are also injected into the joint cavity.
- To eliminate soft tissue spasm and restore trophism, muscle relaxants are used.
- Prescribe medications that restore the peripheral blood supply.
- Vitamin therapy - B vitamins are given in the form of injections.
- To stop bone deformation and restore cartilage tissue, chondroprotectors are used. In the initial phase, they are injected into the joint cavity and then taken as pills. The course of treatment is long - up to 6 months.
- Physiotherapy: paraffin, ozokerite, hydrocortisone electrophoresis, exposure to currents of different frequencies, magnetotherapy.
- Physical therapy exercises - otherwise it is impossible to restore lower limb movement.
- reduce the amount of salt in the daily menu;
- give up on hot spices;
- reduce the amount of purine-rich foods;
- increase the amount of fermented milk and plant foods (excluding sorrel, vegetables, spinach);
- to expand the alcohol consumption regime.
The modern treatment of arthrosis is complemented by the following methods.
Ozone therapy (in the context of glucocorticosteroid treatment). Injections of saline, enriched with ozone, are injected into the affected joint, which restores trophism and eliminates pain.
Kinesiotherapy. Special exercises help restore range to the affected joint - the load is individually selected for each patient.
Home treatment with folk remedies cannot eliminate arthrosis in the knee joint, but it helps to keep it in remission for a long time.
Folk remedies for external action are ointments and rubbing, which are made at home with natural products and remedies that have a local irritating effect. The knee joint is rubbed with alcoholic tinctures infused with pepper, horseradish and onion skins. White cabbage compresses and a honey cake are applied to the knee, the leg goes up in conifer baths or in a comfrey infusion.
In the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint, it is necessary to follow a special diet - it is necessary to:
Only a comprehensive treatment of gonarthrosis will help to eliminate the painful sensations in the joint and lead to long-term remission of the disease.